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Myths and Legends of the Celtic Race. London: George G. Harrap, Edinburgh: W. Blackwood, Its diction is pure, its metre full of variety; and with these merits, common to all true poetry, it unites an insight which only a man of genius can possess into the special characteristics of those ancient times and manners which are so frequently its subject. His Irish poetry is Irish, not, like a good deal which bears that name, i.
Essays, Chiefly Literary and Ethical. Her final work, The High Crosses of Ireland, was unfinished at her death. Stokes was credited on the title page of The Cromlech on Howth only by an elaborate monogram of her initials. See the page here. Samuel Ferguson: The Literary Achievement. It has been a fluid back and forth since writing was invented, and that is a healthy process. Nineteenth-century Romantic nationalists felt they were fully justified in creating traditions where existing ones might be a little thin.
And for a poet to find artistic if not spiritual inspiration when gazing on a megalith ruin, creating a tradition out of that inspiration where no folk tradition might exist, was perfectly in keeping with the time. Cambridge UP, Most of all, Finnegans Wake , like The Cromlech on Howth , constellates historical reflection around an interment in the Howth promontory.
Cogan, and Joseph Tierney. Dublin: Talbot, Two the pages from this small volume are included on our web page. The author writes, "Ossian is represented as looking forward to a later age when some future poet, also on Howth, will transfer the burden of his poem into a form more suited to that later time. Whom might he have had in mind, if not Samuel Ferguson? John Healy. From the preface by James Mills. The text may be read in its entirety here. Inishmurray: Monks and Pilgrims in an Atlantic Landscape. Cork: Collins, The authors conclude: "The Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government receives more requests each year to save sites under threat from the sea, but the problem is enormous and seemingly unstoppable.
Often, the best one can do is to ensure that the site is fully recorded and leave nature to take its course. The location of the Bronze Age cist discovered in by James Harte has been identified as the group of erect slabs a visitor to Inishmurray today may note when stepping off the boat after it lands in the Clashymore inlet. It is further described by the authors p. Within the hollow, large, flat, edge-set slabs form the north and east sides of what may once have been a lintelled short cist…The site was examined by E. Estyn Evans who was satisfied that it was a later prehistoric funerary cist; the whereabouts of an associated urn or food vessel are now unknown.
A few of these drawings may be seen online here. Inishmurray, Island Voices. Mullaghmore, Co. Sligo: Aeolus, It is not amiss to have a few ounces of common twist tobacco for distribution amongst the islanders, whose services in small matters will at times be required,. They are often very proud, and will at times refuse money , which they think has not been earned—but tobacco , never!
The Shell Guide to Ireland. London: Ebury P. James Mills noted in "The Report is not accompanied by either drawings, plans, or measurements. But it holds out the promise of judicious work, to be done only where needed for preservation. It was natural to look forward to the final report on the treatment of remains of so great interest and value.
The works therein recommended have been undertaken and satisfactorily completed. Public Works, Ireland , Appendix p. Pagan Ireland. London: Longmans, Green, and Co. The authors further commented on Wakeman fieldwork: "His account of the associated religious practices and other traditions of the islanders was thoughtful and sympathetic.
Despite this, his survey does have some shortcomings. Although there are many handsome and detailed sketches of the major monuments, the report offers no scaled plans or elevations apart from one sketch-plan of the Cashel. Furthermore, his record of the cross-slabs and early memorial inscriptions is selective and sometimes inaccurate. Inishmurray: Ancient Monastic Island. The author concludes: "Our understanding of this period is hampered by a number of factors. Accidental fires and those caused by enemy action destroyed much written material in Irish monastic houses.
To the best of available knowledge the monastic settlement on Inishmurray was founded circa A. Molaise in known as the confessor to St. As confessor, St. Molaise would have mandated St. McGowan, Joe. Successor abbots on Inishmurray appear to have also used the name Molaise. The authors note that both Wakeman and Herity suggested that the Cashel was originally a secular settlement later gifted to the Church.
Finding no evidence in support of this in their excavation of several monuments outside the Cashel, the authors suggest that only excavation within the monastery wall could determine the answer. They conclude that "based upon present evidence it seems to us just as likely that it was built as an ecclesiastical enclosure.
S map where there are indications of an outer concentric ring on three sides which mighty support the view that the Cashel wall is over 2, years old. The author suggest that the Abbey of Staad, in Streedagh, on the mainland across from Inishmurray, may have housed the monks from the island in Harbison, Pilgrimage The author writes: "Only men were buried in the Cashel.
The cloistered ground refused the coffins of women buried there. Mysteriously they were found overground in the morning. It was a taboo that could not be broken. McGowan, Gale The author noted the mortar dating information soon after Professor Ranier Berger and his colleagues analyzed a sample of the mortar from the oldest part of Teach Molaise which provided a calibrated radiocarbon date of AD , suggesting "that the building is not only early in the history of mortared stone buildings in Ireland, but is probably the earliest surviving ecclesiastical structure on the island.
According to tradition, he is buried here as well. McGowan, Voices The slab is said by several of the natives of the island to have been broken and utilized as building material by the reconstructors of the gable just referred to. It was, I believe, the only relic remaining in Ireland which appeared to be connected in some way, perhaps long forgotten, with the mysterious fire-worship practised by our Aryan forefathers. His bones lie there to tell the tale exposed for ages past He expiated for his crime and there met with his last.
Regarding the bones, supposedly of the transgressor, reported by earlier visitors, the authors noted that Wm. Wakeman reported finding burnt bone in a wall niche. The further noted that Lord Mountbatten believed that the building was used to house human bones from the cemetery, perhaps disturbed by grave digging.
In Co. Of the ritual undertaken by pregnant women, Wakeman wrote: "In connexion with this pillar a custom, which is worthy of record, very generally prevails. Women who expect shortly to become mothers are wont hither to resort for the purpose of praying for a happy issue from the perils of their impending travail. The natives assert that death in childbirth is an unknown calamity upon the island.
The postulants kneel, passing their thumbs into the front, and their fingers into the side openings, by which means a firm grasp of the angles of the stone is obtained. They are thus enabled to rise from their act of obeisance with a minimum of strain or difficulty. The author reported that accounts in hagiography and folklore assert that the saints and early missionaries left rounded stones as remembrances to the converted before leaving them to spread the faith elsewhere.
The round stones on the Clocha Breaca are made of sandstone and range in size from around 15—50 cm 6—20 in. William Wakeman, in , reported finding only five decorated "cursing stones" on the altar: "Only five of the many altar-stones sometimes styled "Cursing" or "Swearing Stones" remaining on Clochabreaca are decorated.
In all cases the figure presented is that of a Greek cross, enclosed by a circle. Two of the examples which I shall first describe are highly ornate, so much so, indeed, that their design might form a valuable study to an illuminating artist intent on reproducing early Irish work of sacred, or simply decorative, character. The author relates the story of an RUC constable stationed on the island who expressed his contempt for the native beliefs by taking one of the cursing stones and concealing in his barracks.
The latter, if it consisted of a single stone, unfortunately cannot now be found; but it is not unlikely that the shaft may originally have been socketed in the masonry of the altar. A small hollow, circular in plan, descends vertically into the body of the stone, to a distance which, owing to the presence of decayed matter, probably vegetable, within it, I could not ascertain with accuracy. A cover, formed of a flag, and having a stopper, like what we see in modern glass ware, of a size exactly fitting the neck of the boring, usually surmounts the stone, but is sometimes laid beside it…Tradition, on the island, as far as I am aware, has nothing to say concerning the purpose to which this unique object was anciently applied.
Could it have been a primitive chrismatory [container for holy anointing oil]?
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The author notes that the word "curse" comes from the Irish, cursachadh , or "abuse. John Healy reported in that a woman, "in mockery of the superstition, turned the stones against herself, and died within the twelve months. The stones were removed from the island c. The result of this program will be computer files theoretically allowing cursing stones replicates to be created using a 3D printer. Originally located on the leacht at the Cashel the stones worked sandstone had been removed from the island for conservation and protection from the impact of erosion.
Tour boat operators Trudy and Rodney Lomax , when asked by OPW to use their boat to remove the stones from the island, would not take a chance on violating the old superstitions.
Thomas Moore - Irish Biography
Lomax, Trudy. According to the author, it was Fr. Molaise from further damage. Other experts believe that the wooden statue may be as early as the ninth century. More here. Molaise: "It is astonishing how preachers, and ignorant uneducated rascals of that description, have been able to say so much about the figure of Molash, and pass over the most curious remains of antiquity on this island, which will yet attract the notice of men of real learning and true piety, when hypocritical cant shall be condemned as a science having a worse tendency than phrenology…" Wakeman vii.
Most likely the bell and crozier were acquired together by Walker from a local person. From an article on Roger Chambers Walker we learn that his museum included "dug-up, purchased or swapped items. Much of the collection was found locally or came from throughout Sligo including the island of Inishmurray…Some items were acquired by devious means while collectors vied with each other to outwit each other in the acquisition of choice items.
Added to this he combined the role of antiquarian looter in the adjacent Carrowmore area and collector of antiquities. Heraughty spent his first twelve years on Inishmurray. He later trained as a doctor and practiced in Sligo. See this article about the event held to celebrate his 90th birthday. Pilgrims fasted for the entire day, and did three clockwise rounds about each of the stations barefoot, reciting five Our Fathers, five Hail Marys and the Creed at each of the stations, with a few exceptions. The Inishmurray Stations: 1.
Teach Molaise , St. Leachta Cholmcille "memorial altar of Colmcille" is just south of the Cashel. Patrick—is located right on the cliff edge. Stations 9 and 10 are located just in front of the central houses on the coastal street. Teampall na mBan or the "church of the women," just south of the Cashel. Altair Bheag , the "Small Altar" inside the Cashel. A second small altar, whose name is lost.
Clocha Breaca , the "Speckled or cursing Stones. The full pilgrimage round was known as the "Big Station" and took four hours. There was also an abridged version, called the "Wee Station. Beranger noted in that "when they find themselves overstocked they send their children, when able, to the main to provide for themselves, who do not return but on visits to their parents, or to take possession of an inheritance.
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A census in recorded only three people, or perhaps three households. According to Patrick Heraughty, Inishmurray was in the modern era owned by the Hipsley and Sullivan estate. But the adroit Wynne was prepared for this, and had obtained the agreement of Margaret McNulty, a cook at Hazelwood, that she would marry Domhnall and go to the island with him. With this and some minor objections overcome, Domhnall had little choice but to accept the offer of Inishmurray. Other small Irish islands have also been depopulated in recent times, such as the Blasket Islands off Co.
For a photograph courtesy Trudy Lomax of the deserted homes seen in our virtual-reality environment with a colorful growth of spring flowers click here. Everyone had to sing…" McGowan, Voices For an interesting history of how lobster, which began as a food for the impoverished, became a culinary status symbol, read this article. An old woman knitting was seen on a sometimes-submerged small island south of Inishmurray.
An enchanted pig invaded a home and replaced the baby with a changeling. A man violated the taboo against shooting a seal, which ultimately caused a mark on his baby. Inishmurray soil can be used to eradicate rats. Swans could never be harmed, lest they turn out to be enchanted children. You should never point at a boat with your finger.
The holy well water, when drained into the sea, could calm storms. The drying process required stone cairns with the seaweed enclosed with smoldering coals. More information here. The locations of the hidden whiskey were marked by aligning two fixed points on either side using subtly marked stones. Heraughty tells the story of a RUC sergeant who pretended not to know that the mash supposedly prescribed by a veterinarian for a sick cow was actually being using to make whiskey.
In Fr. John Healy wrote of the Inishmurray "royalty:" "There is an island queen, heretofore greatly reverenced, and of parental authority; but the spread of democratic ideas has penetrated even to this remote spot, so that her insular majesty, like many of her royal cousins, she has had to endure considerable diminution of her prerogatives. She considers the presence of the police as a gross infringement of her sovereign rights; and she would dismiss them "bag and baggage" as peremptorily as Mr. Gladstone would the Turks, if she only had the power.
The islanders received a sympathetic hearing, and Sligo County Council agreed to build eight cottages on the coast opposite the island on land the Land Commission had acquired…" By the time two years later that the island was evacuated the families had dwindled to six. The other two cottages were given to mainland families. The Legend of the Sons of God: a Fantasy? London: Routledge and K. Paul, The Flying Saucer Vision, 2nd edn. London: Sphere, Cited in: Chippindale, Christopher. Stonehenge Complete. See sections on "Influence," and "Parodies and homages.
Bray, The authors explain: "The sites actually located by us lie within a confined [arable] area about 1 mile square in the townlands of Keel East, Doogort West and Bal of Dookinelly, placed centrally within the zone. This seems to be a favoured area, being the most productive at present.
However, the ruined village of Slievemore, to the west, and the settlement of Doogort to the east, rather complicate the picture. The very intensive occupation of Slievemore during the past century could account for the absence of tombs due to destruction. The animals were at the lower end of the slightly inclined floor; their effluent would collect away from the living quarters.
There is a good explanation here. Fifty-two years ago the late Sir William Wilde thus describes the customs of these primitive people…". Ballymote Heritage Group. In July of we accompanied Sam Moore on a climb up to the Keshcorran Cairn, where he did some measuring of kerbstones for his ongoing research in the area. The Caves of Kesh still attract people for ceremonial practices, such as this modern musical gathering.
Directions for the hike up to the top of Keshcorrann may be found here. Hillforts in Sligo and Leitrim. Emania 9 , The author suggests that "The late and more frequent presence of man indicates the time when the Bear was becoming, or had become, extinct in the locality. London: John Murray, London: Harrap, Sligo, Ireland. Ann-Britt Falk and Donata M. Oxford: Archaeopress, According to the author, "Some of the other [Kesh] stories appear to date mainly from the 17th century and many are still reflected in the Schools Folklore Collection of Silva Gadelica, a Collection of Tales in Irish. The version by James Stephens, with illustrations by Arthur Rackham, may be read here.
Dublin: M. The author includes a quotation from 1 Peter In the essay, he compares the Kilclooney Dolmen with similar structures in the Middle East. The term "tinker," as used by Mr. McNelis in , is today considered offensive. The preferred term is "traveling people. According to Borlase, "Partially covered by a flat stone in the circle of stones which surrounds this monument was a spring of clear water at a distance of a few yards E.
Prehistoric and Early Christian Ireland; a Guide. Some of the other suggestions for what the dolmen resembles were found here , and here. Early Bardic Literature. The folklore regarding visitors tossing stones onto the monument is heard at other dolmens in the country; see Co. Fairy Legends from Donegal. Dublin: University College Dublin Dept. The story cited is from Co.
London: Parbury and Allen, In this sequestered isle, aloof from the tumults of a bustling world, this Tuath-de-danaan colony, all of a religious race, and all disposed to the pursuits of literature, united into a circle of international love, and spread the fame of their sanctity throughout the remotest regions of the universe. The Topography of Ireland. London: George Bell and Sons, The author continued: "Not that [the fire]cannot be extinguished, but the nuns and holy women tend and feed it, adding fuel, with such watchful and diligent care, that from the time of the Virgin, it has continued burning through a long course of years; and although such heaps of wood have been consumed during this long period, there has been no accumulation of ashes…As in the time of St.
The rest follows as a matter of course. See also Wikipedia article on Kildare Cathedral.
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A legend explains how Brigid received the land for her monastery from the high king of Leinster: The king offered her, obstinately, "as much land as her cloak would cover. One of her hagiographies, written c. Many miracles, by the blessings of Blessed Brigid, have been received through that oak tree. Brigid: Goddess, Druidess and Saint. Stroud [England: History, In there were reported to be a Church of Ireland congregation of only 20 members holding its Sunday services in Kildare Cathedral during the its open summer season.
While the major restoration of the structure was completed in , additional work has been done to the cathedral in recent years as part of its centenary. Dublin: Academy, The author adds: "Unlike the mysteries and the irretrievable disparition of ancient Irish culture, lost, inaccessible and largely unknown, the Round Towers were still part of the here and now; they formed a physical link with a past that was so mysterious and unknown that it may just as well have been wholly non-existent.
Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academ y, Vol. Dublin: Hodges and Smith. Ireland: Ur of-the Chaldees. Irish round Towers. Dublin: Country House, Waddell, John. Cited in Williams, W. Powerful Places in Ireland. Sydney: Dept. In addition to the rush-woven St. The doll was carried by children or young people, who visited households in the neighborhood and provided singing and dancing entertainment, perhaps to solicit some coins or refreshment. Wright, Brian. Stroud [England]: History, The author provides some evidence for his assertion that the rectangular "reconstruction" of St.
The description of Brigid continues: "In Druid mythology, the infant goddess was fed with milk from a sacred cow from the Otherworld. Brigid owned an apple orchard in the Otherworld and her bees would bring their magical nectar back to earth. As Brian Wright put it, "The difficulty of creating fire is reflected in the importance of the perpetual fire. In many religions all over the world…In many cases great importance was attached to keeping the ritual fire pure and uncontaminated, and since those chosen to tend such sacred fires had such an important role in religious practices, they too were expected to be pure and of high moral virtue.
Patheos: Hosting the Conversation on Faith, 3 Jan. It is for this reason that they call her the goddess of poets by this title, and her sisters were Brigit, the woman of smithcraft, i. According to Lawrence, "Pope Gregory [the Great] counseled Bishop Augustine [missionary to the English] not to destroy pagan shrines but to baptize them for Christian use. It is likely that the Irish missionaries adapted the same approach. As Pope Gregory points out, candidates for Christian conversion would naturally feel more at home in churches occupying the same sacred ground that the pagan sanctuaries had held.
Crossing the Circle at the Holy Wells of Ireland. Charlottesville: University of Virginia, The traditional St. The more accessible location is the other St. It also has a long association with Brigid.. More information, and photographs, of the two holy wells dedicated to St. Brigid in Kildare may be viewed here. Kildare: Solas Bhride Community, Of this apparently lost "Book of Kildare," Giraldus wrote: "Among all the miracles in Kildare, none appears to me more wonderful than that marvelous book which they say was written in the time of the Virgin [St.
Brigit] at the dictation of an angel. It contains the Four Gospels according to St. John, and almost every page is illustrated by drawings illuminated with a variety of brilliant colours…you will find them so delicate and exquisite, so finely drawn, and the work of interlacing so elaborate, while the colours with which they are illuminated are so blended, and still so fresh, that you will be ready to assert that all this is the work of angelic, and not human, skill.
The more often and closely I scrutinize them, the more I am surprised, and always find them new, discovering fresh causes for increased admiration. Minehan, Rita. He is said to have ordered the bones of the other patron saints of the country, St. Brigid d. Columcille d. Patrick on the cathedral hill of Downpatrick According to some sources , this may have been part of his effort to bolster his popular allegiance.
Patrick, Brigid, and Columcille were buried in one tomb with great solemnity. This text may be read in its entirety here. Irish poet and songwriter Thomas Moore also wrote of St. The Works of Thomas Moore. Paris: Galignani, According to this website: "On Imbolc , , the Daughters of the Flame lit a fire in honour of the Goddess Brigit and the saint Bridget, modeled after the perpetual fire which once burned in Kildare.
We share the task of tending the flame, on a twenty day rotation; each woman tends the fire in her own way, so that it is a solitary devotion linked to the devotions of a larger group. On the twentieth day the Goddess Herself keeps the flame alive. Instead of burning in one grove, temple, or monastery, it burns on personal altars, desks, and picnic tables in countries east and west, south and north.
Different sources credit or blame the medieval extinguishing of St. The group looks favorably upon Celtic spirituality : "Celtic Spirituality has a profound sense of the presence of God in everyone and in everything. It is a spirituality nourished by ritual, tradition, contemplation, experience and story. The second part of the quotation is attributed to Monaghan, B. January-February : A more intact version of the "skull and crossbones" carving freatured in the gallery may be seen here.
The image was modified from the one on this page. The prayer card of St. Brigid with the triple-goddess figure on one side was found here. Lays of the Western Gael and Other Poems. London: Bell and Daldy, The authors begin: "The ancient church of Killinagh probably marks the site and preserves the traditions of one of the more important sanctuaries of pagan Ireland…It stands on a small promontory, whose excavation might throw a flood of light on that obscure period of Irish archaeology before the introduction of Christianity.
Between it and the church is a thicket, in which slabs set on edge seem to represent the remains of a megalith, probably of passage grave type, but the dense undergrowth makes it impossible to plan the structure. Close to the south wall of the church is a long slab set on edge, perhaps the remains of another megalith. The author explained: "At first Christianity strongly disapproved of people who worshipped stones, but gradually there came a new tolerance, which was generous enough for certain menhirs [standing stones] to be Christianized. Indeed, in Spain and Brittany a few megalithic monuments have been incorporated into functioning modern Christian churches.
I take this to be a sign that the older faith of the builders survived in some shape or form until at least the Middle Ages of western Europe. The author describes another type of cursing stone: "Not many years ago, but it seems to have died out now, there was a system of cursing in common vogue in Fermanagh with tenants who had been given notice to quit. This was: they collected, from all over their farms, stones. These they brought home, and having put a lighted coal in the fireplace, they heaped the stones on it as if they had been sods of turf.
They then knelt down on the hearth- stone, and prayed that as long as the stones remained unburnt every conceivable curse might light on their landlord, his children, and their children to all generations. To prevent the stones by any possibility being burnt, as soon as they had finished cursing, they took the stones and scattered them far and wide over the whole country. Many of the former families of the county are said now to have disappeared on account of being thus cursed. The stones are on the north wall of the ruined church, not far above ground level.
The author quotes George Petrie, who suggested that "early missionaries and clerics carried consecrated stones on their journey, and placed them on altars when celebrating Mass. He refers to a passage in the Book of Lecan regarding St. The event, which historically was a harvest festival which including bonfires and peak-climbing, descended from the Celtic festival of Lughnasa. The Fairy-faith in Celtic Countries. London: H. Frowde, Oxford, UK: B. Blackwell, There is a video here about the discovery of the trumpet, and how it would sound using a replica.
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Microform , Book , Online - Google Books. On 6 September an American raid was repulsed with only a horse of the Dragoons wounded; that same night, Captain Ansley, 89 th Foot, was mortally wounded leading a detachment of his regiment and the Dragoons against the American advanced picket. Nor was such excitement limited to the landward side of Burlington Heights.
On 7 August Lang described a scene worthy of Turner:. Awoke in the morning by firing from the fleet. Camp under arms. March to lakeside. Fleets maneuver. Enemy visible.
Turn out at midnight with 12 dragoons. Tremendous thunder and lightening. While the British lacked the strength to deliver a knock out blow, the Americans similarly lacked, until very late in the conflict, both the will and the ability to drive the British from the Canadas. Thus both sides were reduced to small scale operations such as the raids of which Lang wrote, engagements that often seemed more directed by a tit for tat logic than any grand strategy conceived by generals on either side, with proper battles being a matter of chance if not outright error.
The result was a war no less bloody, in proportion, than that being then fought in Spain or Germany. Sickness rather than enemy counter measures slowed the raiding in early September. On the 18 th , Lang noted "Climate unhealthy, subject to ague," and by 3 October was himself ill. Still suffering the lingering effects of his illness on 4 October, Lang went out on a mounted hunt hoping to finally shake his fever. Of course, the damp autumn air only worsened it, for which he had to receive an emetic from Dr.
Meanwhile, disease raged in the camp. Warned of an enemy assault on 26 September, Lang wrote: "Camp very sickly, force not more than effectives. When the assault did come, on 6 October, a barn of forage was burned and a party of the 19 th ambushed. Sickness and defeat did nothing to help British spirits. Or, perhaps the Colonel was displeased that he and his men had received their route for Kingston the day before, though such is improbable.
Whatever joy the 19 th might have felt at being ordered away from Burlington Heights was tempered, however, by the difficulties of marching in the Canadas, difficulties which the regiment had now experienced many times over, and which very soon made their presence felt. That night Lang was forced to "sleep in a miserable hovel without windows with a few of the men around the fire.
Though he offers no specifics, he was clearly not impressed with the uses to which such examples of Crown beneficence were put. Near being placed in an awkward situation with Mrs. Costard, her husband from home and only two beds in the same room. Costard arrives home in good time. With the most active theatre of operations in the war slowly receding behind them, the officers would have been forgiven had their thoughts and conversation turned to the comparative comforts of Kingston, if not the delights of Montreal, that they soon hoped to be enjoying again.
A very good diner, delicious water fowl. With thus perhaps a certain feeling of foreboding, Lang departed York for Kingston with 24 men on 1 November. Save for a brief stretch of road near Pickering that he found "very bad," the march for the most part seems to have been conducted on roads that were at least "tolerable. Thus his earlier criticisms of Canadian conditions to a very great extent reflected the novelty of the situation for the young officer.
Indeed, his early, scathing criticism of the conditions made at the hand of both nature and man reflected the most common reaction of both Englishmen and women on their first arrival in the Canadas. Indeed, if such a line of reasoning be correct, it is suggestive of how easily Lang was able to adapt to conditions that his criticism was tempered with the passage of time, while that of others experienced no noticeable moderation.
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The ruminations of the ill-informed historian aside, the march to Kingston was clearly a more tolerable affair than the march out. This time the novelty of a very fine bass dinner had clearly passed, for Lang found the quarters bad. On 7 November, the march of the troop was delayed waiting for the baggage to come up. A sergeant and six men were to remain behind at Nappanee Mills. The diversion to Ernestown was not to be a holiday, however.
Lang himself was taken seriously ill while in Ernestown, his quick recovery due to the kindness of his hostess Mrs. To a very great extent, the deterioration of the march had as much to do with the turn in the weather than the inadequateness of the quarters. Already on 16 November Lang noted the "miserable condition of the troop. The next day the wretched conditions not only continued, but worsened: "Men suffer much from cold being almost naked. Rain freezes and sleets at the same time. A most excellent and hospitable man. His kind reception.
Knows all the people in North of Ireland. Desires to be remembered to Dr. His plan for the defence of the province; to arm the population and officer them from the Line. Fees against the settling of Canada by British subjects. Yankees get the land in consequence. Divert the current of emigration from Scotland and Ireland to this country in preference to the States. On 21 November the troop crossed into Lower Canada and quartered at Coteau. Roads very bad. McGillivary," and the officers of the 89 th Foot. There were false alarms and the occasional marches, too, but the war was in reality many miles away.
Not that the war was over for Lang. Back at the front, the Lieutenant did not see much of the war. Dinners, including one with Major-General Phineas Riall, hunting, and riding occupied most of his time. The author would like to thank Mr. William Erwin, senior cataloger at the Perkins, for his permission to use the Lang diary for this article. Unless otherwise noted, all quotes come from the Lang diary.
London: Macmillan and Company, , Vol. IV, p. The 19th Light Dragoons were converted into the 19 th Lancers in , and were disbanded in Brereton, ed. Cruickshank, ed. Klinck, ed. Returning to England after the fall of Quebec in , for example, Admiral Saunders was forced by rough weather to make for Cork after several failed attempts at his intended destination, Portsmouth.
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Saunders to Cleveland, 11 December Lang nonetheless noted that the horses were "in surprising good condition after their voyage. Cruikshank, Doc. Bird to Major Parker, 31 July