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  1. Introduction to Human Physiology | UCLA Continuing Education
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All major bones, muscles, and nerves in the body are named, with the exception of anatomical variations such as sesamoid bones and accessory muscles. Blood vessels carry blood throughout the body, which moves because of the beating of the heart. Venules and veins collect blood low in oxygen from tissues throughout the body. These collect in progressively larger veins until they reach the body's two largest veins, the superior and inferior vena cava , which drain blood into the right side of the heart.

From here, the blood is pumped into the lungs where it receives oxygen and drains back into the left side of the heart. From here, it is pumped into the body's largest artery , the aorta , and then progressively smaller arteries and arterioles until it reaches tissue. Here blood passes from small arteries into capillaries , then small veins and the process begins again. Blood carries oxygen , waste products, and hormones from one place in the body to another.

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Blood is filtered at the kidneys and liver. The body consists of a number of body cavities , separated areas which house different organ systems. The brain and central nervous system reside in an area protected from the rest of the body by the blood brain barrier. The lungs sit in the pleural cavity. The intestines , liver , and spleen sit in the abdominal cavity. Height, weight, shape and other body proportions vary individually and with age and sex. Body shape is influenced by the distribution of muscle and fat tissue.

Human physiology is the study of how the human body functions. This includes the mechanical, physical, bioelectrical , and biochemical functions of humans in good health, from organs to the cells of which they are composed. The human body consists of many interacting systems of organs.

These interact to maintain homeostasis , keeping the body in a stable state with safe levels of substances such as sugar and oxygen in the blood. Each system contributes to homeostasis, of itself, other systems, and the entire body. Some combined systems are referred to by joint names. For example, the nervous system and the endocrine system operate together as the neuroendocrine system. The nervous system receives information from the body, and transmits this to the brain via nerve impulses and neurotransmitters.

At the same time, the endocrine system releases hormones, such as to help regulate blood pressure and volume.

Introduction to Human Physiology | UCLA Continuing Education

Together, these systems regulate the internal environment of the body, maintaining blood flow, posture, energy supply, temperature, and acid balance pH. Development of the human body is the process of growth to maturity. The process begins with fertilisation, where an egg released from the ovary of a female is penetrated by sperm. The egg then lodges in the uterus , where an embryo and later fetus develop until birth.

Growth and development occur after birth, and include both physical and psychological development, influenced by genetic, hormonal, environmental and other factors. Development and growth continue throughout life, through childhood , adolescence , and through adulthood to senility , and are referred to as the process of ageing. Health professionals learn about the human body from illustrations, models, and demonstrations.

Medical and dental students in addition gain practical experience, for example by dissection of cadavers. Human anatomy, physiology , and biochemistry are basic medical sciences, generally taught to medical students in their first year at medical school. Anatomy has served the visual arts since Ancient Greek times, when the 5th century BC sculptor Polykleitos wrote his Canon on the ideal proportions of the male nude. In Ancient Greece , the Hippocratic Corpus described the anatomy of the skeleton and muscles. The study of human physiology began with Hippocrates in Ancient Greece, around BC, and with Aristotle — BC who applied critical thinking and emphasis on the relationship between structure and function.

Galen c. In the 20th century, the physiologists Knut Schmidt-Nielsen and George Bartholomew extended their studies to comparative physiology and ecophysiology. One of the most significant contributions was that given by pope John Paul II in his catecheses held at the Vatican during Wednesday general audiences. It received the name of the Theology of the Body.


In his catecheses John Paul II presented an interpretation of the fundamental significance of the body, and in particular of sexual differentiation and complementarity, one which aims to challenge common contemporary philosophical views. John of the Cross " [57] and was "in harmony with St. Thomas Aquinas ". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The entire structure of a human being.

For the textbook, see Gray's Anatomy. See also: List of organs of the human body. See also: List of systems of the human body. Main article: Circulatory system. Main article: Digestive system. Main article: Endocrine system. Main article: Immune system. Main article: Integumentary system. Main article: Lymphatic system.

Introduction to Human Physiology

Main article: Musculoskeletal system. Main article: Nervous system. Main article: Human reproductive system. Main article: Respiratory system. Main article: Urinary system. Main articles: Outline of human anatomy and Anatomy. Main articles: Outline of physiology and Physiology. Main article: Development of the human body. Further information: History of anatomy , History of medicine , and History of physiology. Main articles: Human figure aesthetics and Figure drawing. Main article: History of anatomy. Main article: History of physiology. See also: Catholic theology of the body.

See also: History of beliefs about the human body.

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See also: Theology of the Body. Biology portal Medicine portal. About education. Retrieved 2 September Science Netlinks. PLOS Biology. Annals of Human Biology. Journal of Investigative Dermatology Symposium Proceedings.

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Retrieved 29 July Oxford Dictionaries English. Retrieved 17 September National Cancer Institute. Archived from the original on 2 February Retrieved 16 September Retrieved 4 September Victoria State Government. Pearson Benjamin Cummings.

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Moore's Clinically Oriented Anatomy. Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed. Columbia University Press. Archived from the original on 2 January Human Biology and Health. Prentice Hall. Understanding Life. Henry Gray. Retrieved 27 March Archived from the original on 20 February ISBN ".

Archived from the original on 9 February Journal of Hellenic Studies. Dartmouth College. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.

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Retrieved 29 August Retrieved 14 October McGraw Hill Higher Education. Archived from the original on 3 March Retrieved 25 June November Thorac Surg Clin. Medicine News Today. J Clin Invest. New directions in ecological physiology. New York: Cambridge Univ. Annual Review of Physiology.

Gracewing Publishing. Asexual is used in repair of tissues. It is also used for overall organismal Growth allowing for maturity when working with sexual growth—thus granting the organism but how is it that the privilege of contributing to continuation of the species with progeny from itself and we are Living? In parthenogenesis, only one member contributes to the creation of an offspring thereby reducing the element of genetic diveristy. The idea is to recognize that as Reproduction: sexual reproduction is what results in the creation of a new member of the living beings we species.

There is still some room for diversity as there may be share more in individual variations in the behavior of a genetic code from one member to another within the common with same species. Adaptation: a greater diversity leads to greater adaptability. More uniformity of genetics can lead to great proliferation of species but with one lethal change in the environment, the entire species may uniformly respond and perish.

Evolution: Our DNA is a changing molecule. It holds the code for the host animal to live and flourish in its given environment. Changing enviornment and other factors alters the DNA and that alters the being. But other changes provide the host with the ability to cope with a changed environment. Such a process is the basis of Evolution. He then applied occlusive finger pressure halfway on a vein and dragged the finger distally lower picture. When he lets go of the finger pressure, however, the vein refills from distal to proximal to resemble the original status of the veins upper picture.

Lead to vaccination programs against smallpox. Set up with life-long annuity for him to continue his work. Schaefer postulated a sugar-controlling hormone. Banting shared cash prize with Best. MacLeod shared prize with Collip who purified insulin. Stanley Prusiner, M.

Neurologist and Biochemist. Founder of InPro Biotechnology, Inc. Isolated and described the prion as an infectious protein, devoid of any nucleic acid components.

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