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He was from the Royal Society and pushed for a classical design. He used a large-scale model to persuade Charles II to approve his design. The dome of St. It served as an infamous prison where high-level political prisoners would be held or executed. The tower was originally built to keep invaders out. This building has had over 1, years of constant use and it is a symbol of London and Britain. The main room is intricately carved stone with ornate designs. It is three-storeys tall with a beautifully artistic ceiling.
The face now is the original face. The Elizabethan face was levelled during the London Blitz when a random bomb destroyed it.
Later, it was decided that it would be a good idea to restore the original face. This was surprisingly easy because of the excellent condition the original face was in. Photo by soapbeard. Locate at 30 St. Mary Axe and standing tall at ft. The unique curvature makes this a one-of-a-kind design. It is a high-performance building that incorporates the smart use of light.
Its outer frame is a curved diameter so you get a much wider view. The Gherkin is a smart building as it automatically adjusts to the weather. This is truly an extraordinary work of architecture. Despite its unique design, the only piece of curved glass is its dome.
The Building of England: How the History of England has Shaped our Buildings by Simon Thurley
Photo by Loco Steve. This amazing feat of modern technology was the first ever prefabricated skyscraper assembled in a small space. One of the most cutting edge and ambitious products to take place in downtown London in decades, the distinctive triangular shape is storeys tall and incorporates 75, sq.
It was built in this new fashion as they had to build with no storage space. This was solved by the means of a steel exoskeleton. All the creation work was done miles away in northern England.
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It only took 26 months to complete because of this new construction style—it was built like a big jigsaw puzzle. The peculiar shape was designed not to obstruct views of St. It is the tallest building in London at 1, ft. The public entrance is tucked away in a tunnel on London Street. You are so high up that the railways look like model train sets. There are 12 digital telescopes that will tell you what you are looking at on the skyline.
The 72nd floor is a partially open observation deck. You can look up and feel the sounds of London and the wind.
Even the bathroom has an amazing view. This amazing structure is home to the English Parliament. Thousands work here every day and millions come to see it every year as it is a very iconic London building full of history. Coronation church and mausoleum, Westminster Abbey has been a royal foundation since the s, and money was lavished on it by successive monarchs.
Although only a few Saxon fragments survive, it was here that Edward the Confessor developed the style that we call Norman. It was also here that Henry III began his lavish Gothic rebuilding, a project that continued, after his death, for nearly three centuries. The nave today demonstrates the rich taste of English medieval monarchs and their masons, with large-scale sculptures and carved and painted heraldic shields.
Deliberately built in a remote valley by Cistercian monks, it was originally a virtually self-sufficient community. Like other monasteries, friaries and nunneries, Rievaulx was suppressed by Henry VIII in the s, but its remote position meant that much of its stonework still stands.
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It is easy to forget what a big role monasteries played in medieval society, and the Cistercian houses of Yorkshire were responsible for developing a style of building with pointed arches that we call Gothic. These houses, built of brick from the s, became the backbone of the city after the Great Fire of London.
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Not many early examples survive unaltered, but the pattern developed in the s became the blueprint for a huge proportion of urban housing even today. Uniform on the outside, but individualistically decorated within, in many senses they encapsulate the characters of the people who lived in them. Although Inigo Jones and a small group of other architects in the 17th century had conceived buildings that were rigorously faithful to ancient Roman buildings, it was not until after that patrons and architects became obsessed with designing buildings using the ancient orders of architecture precisely.
An early example of this was the courtyard built at Christ Church by Dean Aldrich in to house rich undergraduates. The courtyard was a startling new look, and when the style was taken up by the circle of the royal court, it was adopted for houses, public buildings and churches everywhere. During the late 18th century, British manufacturers revolutionised the production of cotton, using machinery powered by waterwheels. By , there were cotton mills employing , people. Vast new mills were built — but there was a problem. Brick and timber construction was vulnerable to fire, and many mills lit by oil or gas burnt down.
It was also the ancestor of every large building with a steel frame today, from supermarkets to skyscrapers. Instead of waterwheels, new coal-fired steam engines were used to power both the mills and other new types of manufacturing. As Britain became the dominant power in the world, success was built on urban factories. Started in , these hulks look, at a distance, like a Georgian street, but behind the iron casements, they drove the largest economy the world had ever seen.
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Reassurance was at the forefront of the minds of the early railway engineers and architects: both passengers and investors needed to believe that railways were safe and profitable ventures. Avant-garde engineering mixed with reassuringly familiar architectural styles created an atmosphere of confidence.
After the defeat of Napoleon, the Royal Navy became the most powerful fleet in the world. Underlying its power were its dockyards, huge state-owned factories with thousands of workers. It was at a church, rather than at an industrial site, that architecture and engineering first fused to create a new language for the Victorian era.
William Butterfield saw the possibilities of coloured and engineered brick for making modern buildings that were both decorative and functional. Subsequently, this polychromatic brick style was adopted by house builders and came to dominate Victorian streets all over the country. Sir John Betjeman, the poet and admirer of Victorian architecture, called Bedford Park the most important suburb in the Western world.
He was probably right, in that the easy mix of brick-built semi-detached and detached houses in wide streets with deep gardens became the aspiration of millions. The houses that looked back to the 16th and 17th centuries were individually designed and carefully built, but used a very limited stock of motifs.
Such suburbs — and cheaper imitations of them — were built all over England from the s. To order, call or visit books. Terms and Conditions. Style Book. Weather Forecast. Accessibility links Skip to article Skip to navigation. Friday 20 September By Simon Thurley. Related Articles. Westminster Abbey c. The abbey set the standard for aspiring builders for centuries.
This spread to become the dominant architectural style of Britain for years. The Peckwater Quadrangle, Christ Church, Oxford Although Inigo Jones and a small group of other architects in the 17th century had conceived buildings that were rigorously faithful to ancient Roman buildings, it was not until after that patrons and architects became obsessed with designing buildings using the ancient orders of architecture precisely.
Ditherington Flax Mill, Shrewsbury During the late 18th century, British manufacturers revolutionised the production of cotton, using machinery powered by waterwheels.
These were the first wide-spanned metal structures in the world. All Saints, Margaret Street, London It was at a church, rather than at an industrial site, that architecture and engineering first fused to create a new language for the Victorian era. All Saints Church, Brixworth, Northants 2.